# Multiples

## Link of the Day

Elections in the United States are generally taken as a matter of course, but this is not true in many other nations.  Right now Kenyans are waiting to see the results of an election that, although violent, has so far been much more peaceful than the elections in 2007 that left over a thousand dead.  Read this article and think about all the complexities involved in this story – especially about what it means to have a credible leader.  Think about the themes of progress, respect for humanity, the role of citizens and leaders in society, courage, and the motivations behind actions.  This story has many connections to themes that show up frequently in SAT essay questions.  Think about the people who are waiting for the results, and follow up on this story as it progresses.

## Arithmetic: Multiples

Read the following SAT test question and then select the correct answer.

Approach each problem the same way so that you feel confident about your ability to solve it.  Start by reading the question carefully and identifying your bottom line.  Then assess your options and choose the most efficient method to attack the problem.  When you have an answer, loop back to verify that the answer addresses the bottom line.

Add 8x to 2x and then subtract 5 from the sum. If x is a positive integer, the result must be an integer multiple of

Bottom Line:  multiple of = ?

Assess your Options:  You have to write an equation for this problem, but after doing so you can use logic or the strategy of plugging in numbers to find possible answers to the equation.  Both methods are quick and will result in the correct answer.

Attack the Problem:  Your first step is to translate all the words you are given into an equation. If you add 8x to 2x, you get 8x + 2x.  Then subtract 5.  You should have:

8x + 2x – 5

Always simplify as much as possible before moving to the next step.  Here, you can combine like terms.

10x – 5

Now go back to the other information that you are given.  The variable x must be a positive integer.  Plug in the smallest possible value for x, and you will get the smallest possible result of this equation.  Plug in x = 1.

10(1) – 5 = 5

Now, multiples will always get larger, so there are other possible answers to this equation.  However, this is the smallest answer and you are looking for what the result “must” be an integer multiple of.  Multiples are simply the product of a number and an integer.  5 is a prime number, so the only thing that the answer must be a multiple of is 5.

(If you want to make sure you are on the right track, plug in x = 2.  The answer is 15.  15 is still a multiple of 5.  Any positive number that you plug in will still be a multiple of 5 because when you subtract 5 from a multiple of 10, you will always get a number ending in a 5.)

Loop Back:  You found that the answer must be a multiple of 5.  Look down at your answer choices.

(A) 2
(B) 5
(C) 8
(D) 10
(E) 15

The correct answer is (B).

On sat.collegeboard.org, 68% of the responses were correct.

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