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SAT Reading: Sentence Completions

Sentence Completions

Select the word that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

Jared is ------- around strangers, but when he is alone with family and friends, he becomes lively and loquacious.

A. disingenuous
B. erudite
C. verbose
D. dispassionate
E. reticent

Knowsys Method

Always start by covering up your answer choices so that they do not distract you.  Read the sentence carefully, and then predict what you think the answer should be.  Jared is lively and loquacious (excessively talkative) around his friends and family, but he acts differently around strangers.  Our prediction should be the opposite of lively and loquacious, something like "shy and quiet."  Using that as our prediction, let's look at each of the answer choices.

A. "Disingenuous" means "insincere or calculating."  To help yourself remember the meaning of this word, think that "disingenuous" means "not genuine."  This does not match our prediction, so eliminate this choice.

B.  If you read the Divergent books, you may already recognize the word "erudite," which means "intellectual or learned." In the book series, "Erudite" is the name of a faction of people who believe that intelligence is the most important trait one can have.  This choice does not match our prediction, so eliminate it.

C.  "Verbose," "verb," and "verbal" all come from the Latin word "verbum," which means "word."  "Verbose" means "wordy" and can be used to describe a piece of writing, spoken words, or a person.  This is the opposite of our prediction, so eliminate this choice.

D.  "Dispassionate" means "neutral or not affected by emotions."  Think, "dispassionate = not passionate/not emotional." 

E.  "Reticent" comes from the Latin verb "reticiere," which means "to be silent."  Someone who is "reticent" is quiet and reserved.  This matches our prediction, so E is the correct answer. 

The correct answer is E.

Words used in this SC:

disingenuous: insincere or calculating
erudite: 1) intellectual or 2) learned
verbose: wordy
dispassionate: 1) neutral or 2) not affected by emotions
reticent: quiet and reserved

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SAT Reading: Sentence Completions

Sentence Completions

Select the word(s) that best fit the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

The salesman offered the woman a lower interest rate to ------- her to purchase the car, but the woman remained -------, waffling over whether she could commit to such a large purchase without talking to her family first.

A. extol . . vicarious
B. incline . . ineffable
C. induce . . irresolute
D. discern . . prolific
E. baffle . . dubious

Knowsys Method

Start by covering up the answer choices so that they do not distract or bias you.  Then read the sentence and use context clues to determine what the answer should be.  In two-blank sentence completions, start with the easier blank first.  In this case, the second blank is easier because you have more contextual clues to use.  If this woman is waffling (unable to make a decision), then you would describe her as "uncertain."  Using that as our prediction, we will look at all of the second blanks first. 

A. "Vicarious" comes from the Latin "'vicarius," which means "substitute."  The word "vicarious" is used today to indicate that you are experiencing something through someone else.  For instance, if your friend is going on a tour of Europe, you might ask him or her to take lots of pictures so that you can experience the trip vicariously.  This word does not match our prediction, so eliminate this choice.


B. "Ineffable" comes from the Latin "ineffabilis," which means "unutterable."  Something "ineffable" is impossible to put into words.  This word does not match our prediction, so eliminate this choice.   


C. Did you make any New Year's resolutions this year?  If so, you are probably "resolute" about achieving them.  "Resolute" means "determined or certain," so "irresolute" means the opposite, "uncertain."  This choice matches our prediction, so keep it for now.


D. “Prolific” comes from the Latin word for “offspring,” and it means “fertile or highly productive.”  Think PROlific = PROductive.  This choice does not match our prediction, so eliminate it.


E. "Dubious" is easy to remember because it sounds like what it means.  If you are feeling "dubious," then you are feeling doubtful.  If something is "dubious," then it is suspicious and not to be trusted.  This choice matches our prediction fairly well, so keep it for now. 

Now look back at the sentence and predict what should belong in the first blank.  A salesman would want his customer to make a purchase, so he is probably offering the lower interest rate to persuade the customer.  Using "persuade" as our prediction, let's look at the choices we have not yet eliminated.

C. "Induce" comes from the Latin "inducere," which means "lead in or persuade."  "Induce" means much the same thing today; it means "to persuade, influence, or cause."  This choice matches our prediction, so C is most likely the correct answer, but we need to check E to be sure.

E. To "baffle" is "to confuse or to frustrate."  This is the opposite of what the salesman in the question would want to do, so eliminate this choice. 

The correct answer is C.


Words used in this SC:

extol: to praise highly
vicarious: learned, understood, or realized through second-hand experience
incline: 1) to persuade, or 2) to bow or bend
ineffable: indescribable or unspeakable
induce: to persuade, influence, or cause
irresolute: uncertain
discern: 1) to understand,2) to see, or 3) to recognize as different
prolific: fertile or highly productive
baffle: to confuse or to frustrate
dubious: doubtful or uncertain

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SAT Reading: Sentence Completions

Sentence Completions

Select the word that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

Although is it best known as a seasoning for food, garlic is said to have many ------- properties; it can supposedly reduce blood pressure, treat colds, and even relieve athlete’s foot.  

A.  altruistic
B.  mundane
C.  garish
D.  futile
E.  curative

Knowsys Method

Always start by covering up your answer choices so that they do not distract you.  Read the sentence carefully, and then predict what you think the answer should be.  In this sentence, you are told that garlic can treat blood pressure, colds, and athlete’s foot.  So, what sort of properties would you say that garlic has?  Probably healing properties.  Using “healing” as a prediction, let’s look at the answer choices.  

A.  An “altruistic” person is likely to donate money, do charity work, and share readily with others.  “Altruism” is “unselfish concern for others.”  This does not match our prediction, so eliminate this choice.

B.  “Mundane” comes from the Latin “mundus,” which means “universe or world.”  “Mundane” can have one of two meanings: it can mean “of this world (not spiritual or supernatural)” or “commonplace and ordinary.”  The more common meaning is the second.  Neither meaning matches our prediction, so eliminate this choice.

C.  The sound of the word “garish” is well suited to its meaning.  Something “garish” is “tastelessly showy or excessively elaborate.”  The term has a negative connotation, so if you call you neighbor’s holiday decorations “garish,” that means that not only are those decorations elaborate, but you find them tacky.  This choice does not match our prediction, so eliminate it.

D.  “Futile” comes form the Latin word “futilus,” which means “leaky.”  Imagine you are trying to fill a vessel with water, but the water keeps leaking out of a hole in the bottom of the vessel.  That situation is the embodiment of the term “futile,” which means “useless, hopeless, or ineffective.”  This choice is almost the opposite of our prediction, so eliminate it.

E.  “Curative” is easy to remember because it means “tending to cure.”  Think “cure – ative.”  This choice matches our prediction, so E is the correct answer.

The correct answer is E.  

Words used in this SC:

altruism: unselfish concern for others  
mundane: commonplace and ordinary
garish: tastelessly showy or excessively elaborate
futile: useless, hopeless, or ineffective
curative: tending to cure

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SAT Reading: Sentence Completions

Sentence Completions

Select the word that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

Poisonous coral snakes and ------- milk snakes have similar color patterns and markings, so it is important to learn how to ------- these two varieties from one another.  

A.  docile . . depict
B.  succulent . . disparage
C.  trenchant . . finagle
D.  innocuous . . discern
E.  pugnacious . . incline

Knowsys Method

Always start by covering up your answer choices so that they do not distract you.  Read the sentence carefully, and then predict what you think the answer should be.  In two-blank sentence completions, start with the blank that is easier.  The first blank is easier in this sentence, so we will start there.  These two snakes look similar but are different from one another.  If coral snakes are poisonous, it is likely that the other snake mentioned in the sentence is not poisonous, or harmless.   Using “harmless” as our prediction, let’s look at the answer choices.

A.  Surprisingly, “docile” shares the same Latin origin as “doctor.”  Both words come from “docere,” which means “teach.”  The modern meaning of “docile” is “easily taught or obedient.”  An animal that is easily taught could be harmless, so keep this choice for now.

B.  “Succulent” is almost onomatopoeic: it means “juicy or tasty.”  This does not match our prediction, so eliminate this choice.

C.   “Trenchant” means “perceptive or insightful.”  A useful mnemonic to remember this word is that trenches are deep just like insight is (metaphorically) deep.  This choice does not match our prediction, so eliminate it.

D.   “Innocuous” comes from the Latin roots “in” (not) and “nocuus” (to harm) and means “harmless or inoffensive.”  This choice matches our prediction, so keep it for now.  

E. “Pugnacious”  comes from the Latin “pugnare,”  which means “to fight.”  The term “pugnacious” means “quarrelsome or combative,”  which is almost the opposite of our prediction, so eliminate this choice.  

Now, predict what you think should fit in the second blank.  If one snake is poisonous and the other is harmless, it would be important to learn how to distinguish them from each other.  Using “distinguish” as our prediction, let’s look at the choices we still have left.  

A.  The meaning of “depict” is easy to remember.  The word sort of sounds like “picture,” and it means “to describe or give a picture of (something).”  This does not match our prediction, so eliminate this choice.  

D.  “Discern” comes from the Latin “dis” (away) and “cernere,” (separate, sift).  It means “to understand, to see, or to recognize as different.”  This matches our prediction, so D is the correct answer.  

The correct answer is D. 


Words used in this SC:
docile: 1) obedient or 2) easily taught or managed
depict: to describe or give a picture of
succulent: moist, tasty, juicy, or inviting
disparage: to criticize disrespectfully
trenchant: very perceptive and insightful
finagle: to get something by indirect means or by trickery
innocuous: harmless
discern: 1) to understand, 2) to see, or 3) to recognize as different
pugnacious: quarrelsome or combative
induce: to persuade, influence, or cause

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SAT Reading: Sentence Completions

Sentence Completions

Select the word that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

A crowd of birdwatchers gathered to catch a glimpse of ------- bird that had not been spotted in over ten years.  

A. an elusive
B. a lavish
C. a munificent
D. an auspicious
E. a regressive

Always start by covering up your answer choices so that they do not distract you.  Read the sentence carefully, and then predict what you think the answer should be.  If this bird has not been seen in over ten years, it must be difficult to find.  Pick out the answer that best matches this meaning.  

A.  “Elusive” comes from the Latin “eludere,” which means “escape from, make a fool of, or win from at play.”  Something elusive is difficult to find or understand.  This matches our prediction, but check the other choices to be sure.  

B.  “Lavish” comes from a Latin word meaning “to wash,” but it means “extravagant or luxurious.”  This word does not match our prediction, so eliminate it.  

C.  “Munificent” sounds a little like “magnificent,” but it actually means “generous” or “charitable.”  This choice does not match our prediction, so eliminate it.

D.  Something “auspicious” is a good omen.  The term comes from the Latin “auspicium,” which refers to predicting the future by observing the flight of birds.  Although this term relates to bird watching, it does not match our prediction, so eliminate it.

E.  “Regress” is the opposite of “progress:” it means “to move backward.”  “Regressive” does not match our prediction, so eliminate this choice.  

A is the correct answer.

Words used in this SC:
elusive: 1) hard to grasp or 2) evasive
lavish: extravagant or luxurious
munificent: very generous
auspicious: favorable or promising success
regressive: tending to move backwards

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SAT Reading: Sentence Completions

Sentence Completions

Select the word that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

Although she was faced with many obstacles, Ramona remained ------- in pursuit of her goals.  

A.   banal
B.   innocuous
C.   apathetic
D.   resolute
E.   overt

Knowsys Method

Always start by covering up your answer choices so that they do not distract you.  Read the sentence carefully, and then predict what you think the answer should be.  If Ramona pursues her goals despite the obstacles she faces, then how would you describe her?  She is probably persistent and determined.  Using “determined” as our prediction, let’s look at the choices.  

A.   “Arduous” comes from the Latin word “arduus,” meaning high or steep.  The term can literally refer to something that is difficult to climb, but it can also figuratively refer to anything that is difficult to overcome.   Although the obstacles Ramona faces may be arduous, Ramona herself is not.   Eliminate this choice.  

B.   The Latin word “nocuus” means harmful, so you can probably guess what “innocuous” means.  Something “innocuous” is harmless.  This does not match our prediction, so eliminate this choice.  
 
C.   “Apathetic” comes from two Greek roots: “a,” which means without, and “pathos,” which means “emotion, feeling or suffering.”  Apathy is a lack of feeling or emotion.  This is nearly the opposite of our prediction (someone who is apathetic is probably not determined to achieve a goal), so eliminate this choice.  
 
D.   The word “resolute” means determined.  Here is a helpful way to remember the meaning of this word: when I make New Year’s resolutions, I am resolute that I will achieve these goals.  This choice matches our prediction, so keep it and check the last option.

E.   “Prudent” comes from the Latin word “prudens,” meaning “skilled, sagacious (wise) or cautious.”  This does not fit with our prediction, so eliminate this choice.  

The correct answer is D.

Words used in this SC:
arduous: difficult
innocuous: harmless
apathetic: lacking concern or interest
resolute: determined and steady
prudent: very careful

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SAT Reading: Sentence Completions

Sentence Completions

Select the word that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

The novel’s ------- conclusion is sure to cause some dissatisfaction among readers who prefer clear-cut endings.

A.   ambiguous
B.   didactic
C.   fallacious
D.   innate
E.   overt

Knowsys Method

Always start by covering up your answer choices so that they do not distract you.  Read the sentence carefully, and then predict what you think the answer should be.  If readers who prefer clear-cut endings might feel dissatisfied after reading this book, then its ending must unclear or confusing.  With “unclear or confusing” as our prediction, let’s look at the choices.  

A.   You probably know that the Latin prefix “ambi” means “both” or “many” (ambidextrous, ambivalent, etc.).  The other Latin root in “ambiguous” is “agere,” which means “to drive or to lead.”  Put those roots together, and you get a sense of what “ambiguous” means.  Something “ambiguous” is unclear because it could have many possible meanings or lead you in many different directions.   This matches our prediction, so keep it and scan the other choices.  

B.   “Didactic” comes from the Greek word “didaktos,” meaning “taught.”  Something “didactic” is intended to or designed to teach.  Eliminate this choice because it does not match our prediction.

C.   “Fallacious” means “deceptive or misleading.”  A useful trick for remembering the meaning of “fallacious” is to think about the word “false” which sounds similar and means something similar.   This does not match our prediction, so eliminate this choice.

D.   If you have taken French or Spanish in school, you know that the words for "born" in those languages are “né” and “nacido,” respectively.  It makes sense, then that an “innate” characteristic or ability is something you were born with.  This does not match our prediction, so eliminate this choice.  

E.   “Overt” comes from the French word “ouvrir,” which means “to open.”  Something “overt” is out in the open or obvious.  This is the opposite of our prediction, so eliminate this choice.
 
The correct answer is A.

Words used in this SC:

ambiguous: having several possible meanings
didactic: designed to teach
fallacious: deceptive or misleading
innate: existing from birth
overt: not hidden, obvious

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SAT Reading: Sentence Completions

Sentence Completions

Select the words that best fit the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

The girl had been ------- completing her chores, and now her room had  a ------- appearance, with clothing, shoes, and school supplies strewn all over the floor.  

A.  remiss in . . slovenly
B.  laudatory about . . distinct
C.  lackadaisical while . . dilatory
D.  aloof while . . terse
E.  negligible about . . seditious

Knowsys Method

Always start by covering up the answer choices so that they do not distract you.  Read the sentence carefully, and then predict what you think the answers should be.  Start with the blank that seems easier—in this case, the second blank.  If a girl’s clothes, shoes, and school supplies are strewn (scattered) all over her floor, then how would you describe her room?  You would probably call her room messy.  Using “messy” as our prediction, let’s look at the second words in each answer choice.  

A. One helpful tip for remembering the meaning of the word “slovenly” is to think about “slob,” which sounds similar.  “Slovenly” means “messy or careless” and can refer to a person who is messy, or to the state of something that is messy.  This choice fits our prediction, so keep it for now.  

B.  You most likely know the definition of “distinct,” which means “unique, notable, or clear.”  This choice does not match our prediction, so eliminate it.  

C.  When you see the word “dilatory,” think “delay,” because “dilatory” means “characterized by procrastination or delay.”  The girl in the sentence above is “dilatory” because she puts off her chores, but her room cannot be described with this term.  Eliminate this choice.  

D. The word “terse” sounds a little like what it means.  Try saying the word aloud, and notice how it cuts off somewhat abruptly at the end.  Fittingly, “terse” means that something (usually a statement or a written message) is “short to the point of rudeness.”  This choice does not match our prediction, so eliminate it.  

E. The word “seditious” comes from the Latin “seditionem,” which means “civil disorder, strife, or rebellion.”  “Seditious” means “guilty of rebellion or treason.  Eliminate this choice.

Only one of the choices fit, but we need to check the first word of choice A to make sure it works as well.  

A.  “Remiss” comes from the Latin word “remissus,” which can mean “negligent.”  Someone “remiss” is “negligent or lacking a sense of duty.”  This word aptly describes the girl in the original sentence because she neglects her chores.  A is clearly the correct choice.

The correct answer is A.

Words used in this SC:
remiss: negligent or lacking a sense of duty
slovenly: messy or careless
laudatory: full of praise
distinct: unique, notable, or clear
lackadaisical: lacking spirit and enthusiasm
dilatory: characterized by procrastination or delay
aloof: cool and detached
terse: short to the point of rudeness
negligible: small, unimportant, or not worth noticing
seditious: guilty of treason (rebellion against a government)

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SAT Reading: Sentence Completions

Sentence Completions

Select the words that best fit the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

After a long, ------- hike up a steep hillside, the friends were exhausted and needed to rest.

A.  partisan
B.  arcane
C.  arduous
D.  phlegmatic
E.  indelible

Knowsys Method

Always start by covering up the answer choices so that they do not distract you.  Read the sentence carefully, and then predict what you think the answer should be.  What kind of hike would make people feel exhausted?  A difficult hike.  Using “difficult” as our prediction, let’s look at each of the answer choices.   

A.  You may have heard the word “partisan” in discussion about politics.  News outlets are sometimes called “partisan” when they are partial to one political party or another because “partisan” means strongly biased.  This choice does not fit with our prediction, so eliminate it.

B.  The word “arcane” shares a common root with the word “ark” (as in the biblical story of Noah’s Ark).  Both come from the Latin word “arca,” meaning “chest, box, or place for safekeeping.”  Something “arcane” is mysterious, secret, or known only to a few.  This choice does not match with our prediction, so eliminate it.

C.  The word “arduous” comes from the Latin “arduss,” which means “high or steep.”  Something “arduous” is difficult to accomplish, just like climbing a steep hill.  This choice fits our prediction.  Keep it.  

D.  The term “phlegmatic” means “calm, impassive, or not easily agitated.”  This term comes from the theory of humorism, used by ancient Greek and Roman philosophers, which states that people’s moods or personalities are determined by whether they have an excess or deficiency of any of four bodily fluids.  An excess of phlegm was said to make a person calm and unemotional.  Eliminate this choice because it does not match our prediction.

E.  The word “indelible” come from the Latin roots “in,” meaning “not or the opposite of,” and “delebilis,” meaning “able to be destroyed.”  This choice does not match our prediction, so eliminate it.

The correct answer is C.

This is a medium-level problem.


Words used in this SC:
partisan: strongly biased
arcane: mysterious or understood only by a few
arduous: difficult
phlegmatic: calm, impassive, and not easily agitated
indelible: permanent

 

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SAT Reading: Sentence Completions

Sentence Completions

Select the words that best fit the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

The student council created a huge, elaborate float to represent our school in the homecoming parade; this ------- creation looked ------- alongside all the simply decorated trailers used by other schools.

A. embellished . . impervious
B. whimsical . . culpable
C. ornate . . incongruous
D. nebulous. . hackneyed
E. elusive . . didactic

Knowsys Method

Always start by covering up your answer choices so that they do not distract you.  Read the sentence carefully, and then predict what you think the answer should be.  Start with the blank that is easiest—the first blank.  We already know the float is huge and elaborate, so we are looking for a synonym for one of those words, perhaps “enormous” or “extravagant.”  Using those predictions, let’s look through each of the first words in the answer choices.  

A. The word “embellished” comes from two Latin roots: “em,” which means “in or into,” and “bel,” which means beautiful.  To embellish means to beautify or enhance.  This basically fits with our prediction, so we should keep this choice for now.  

B. The word “whimsical” has a strange origin; it comes from the term “whimwham,” which means “fanciful object.”  Something whimsical is fanciful or unpredictable.  This matches somewhat with our prediction, so keep it for now.  

C.  When you see the word “ornate,” think of the ornaments that decorate a Christmas tree.  “Ornate” means elaborately or excessively decorated.  This choice matches our prediction, so keep it for now.

D.  “Nebulous” comes from the Latin “nebulosus,” meaning cloudy or foggy.  This term can be used in a figurative sense to mean that something is vague or unclear.  This choice does not match our prediction, so eliminate it.  

E.  “Elusive” is another form of “elude,” a word with which you are likely familiar.  Something elusive is difficult to catch or understand.  This choice does not match our prediction, so eliminate it.

Now we turn to the second blank.  If this school’s float is highly decorated and the other schools’ floats are simple, then how would this float look alongside the others?  Out of place, most likely.  Using “out of place” as our prediction, let’s look at the remaining choices.

A.  “Impervious” comes from two Latin roots: “in,” which means “not or opposite of” and “pervius,” which means “letting things through.”   Thus, “impervious” means impenetrable or incapable of being harmed.  This does not match our prediction, so eliminate this choice.

B.  When you see the word “culpable,” remember the word “culprit,” which is a related term.  “Culpable” means “deserving blame,” which does not match our prediction.  Eliminate this choice.   

C.  By process of elimination, this choice must be right, but we should check the word to be sure that it fits with out prediction.  “Incongruous” means “absurd or out of place.”  You can easily remember this term if you think about the fact that congruent angles are the same as one another, so incongruous must mean different from others.  This is the correct answer.  

 

The correct answer is: C

This is an easy-level question.

 

Words used in this SC:

embellish: to beautify or enhance
impervious: cannot be harmed
whimsical: unpredictable or fanciful
culpable: deserving blame or condemnation
ornate: elaborately or excessively decorated
incongruous: absurd or out of place
nebulous: indistinct or vague
hackneyed: unoriginal or trite
elusive: hard to grasp or evasive
didactic: designed to teach

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SAT Reading: Sentence Completions

Select the words that best fit the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

The man was completely ------- common sense, an unfortunate trait that caused him to make ------- decisions with alarming frequency.   

A. myopic about . . frivolous
B. wary of . . acrid
C. apathetic toward . . onerous
D. inclined toward . . supercilious
E. bereft of . . imprudent

Knowsys Method

Always start by covering up your answer choices so that they do not distract you.  Read the sentence carefully, and then predict what you think the answer should be.  This is a logic-based sentence completion, so the definitions of the words are not built into the sentence, but if you use your skills of deduction, you should be able to predict what belongs in the blanks.  Focus on the first blank first.  The sentence states that the trait this man possesses is “unfortunate,” so he is probably lacking in common sense.  Use “lacking” as your prediction and take a look at all the answers for the first blank.

A. If you do not know the term “myopic,” you might have heard of the eye condition “myopia,” or nearsightedness.  People who suffer from “myopia” can see objects that are close to them, but anything far away is blurred.  “Myopic” can be interpreted literally as the inability to see faraway objects, or it can be taken figuratively to mean that someone does not consider the long-reaching consequences of his or her actions.  This term does not match our prediction, so eliminate this choice.

B. The word “wary” dates back hundreds of years to the Old Norse word “varr,” which means attentive.  To be wary of something is to show caution about potential problems that might arise.  This does not match our prediction, so eliminate this choice.

C. “Apathetic” comes from two Greek roots: “a,” which means without, and “pathos,” which means “emotion, feeling or suffering.”  Apathy is a lack of feeling or emotion, which looks close to our prediction but is too specific. We are looking for “lacking,” not “lacking emotion.”  Eliminate this choice.

E. “Bereft,” a past participle of “bereave,” can mean that someone has been deprived of a loved one, often because that loved one has passed away.  However, “bereft” can also mean “lacking” in a general sense.  This is the only choice so far that matches our prediction, so this is probably the right answer, but we need to check the second word to be sure.  

“Imprudent” means rash or lacking foresight.  If this man lacks common sense, does it make sense that his decisions are frequently rash?  Yes.  Choice E is clearly the correct answer.

The correct answer is (E).
This is a medium level question.

Words used in this SC:
myopic: having defective vision or a narrow view
frivolous: silly or unimportant
wary: watchful and cautious
acrid: very sharp or bitter
apathetic: lacking concern or interest
onerous: burdensome or troublesome
inclined: having a tendency to do something
supercilious: excessively proud or arrogant
bereft: deprived of or lacking in
imprudent: unwise

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