# Sentence Completions

Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

Cover up the answer choices and read the sentence carefully.  Make a prediction to fill the blank, then match that prediction to the correct answer choice.  Eliminate any answer choices that do not match your prediction.  Make sure you look at all of the answer choices before selecting one, even if the first choice seems to be correct.

Currently rising temperatures in the Arctic and Antarctic are ------- of a still warmer world that could result from an excess of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the burning of oil, gas, and coal.

This is a sentence that is very carefully crafted in order to ensure that there is only one correct answer.  You must read carefully in order to make the correct choice.  When you see that the first word of the sentence is “currently,” you should realize that time will be important in this question.  The second part of the sentence that has to do with time reads, “a still warmer world that could result.”  Notice that this is something that may or may not happen in the future.  You need a word to show that the temperatures that are rising now indicate that future temperatures could also rise.  Predict a word such as “indicative,” “forerunners,” or “signs.”  Look down at your answer choices.

(A) polarities
(B) harbingers
(C) vestiges
(D) counterexamples
(E) aftereffects

(A)  This word is here to distract you.  Two different poles were mentioned in the sentence, the Arctic and Antarctic, but you are worried about the impact on the whole world.  Also, remember that if things are polar, they are usually opposite, but the same thing seems to be happening in both of these places.  Eliminate this choice.

(B)  In the 15th century a “herbengar” was someone who went ahead of a large group of travelers (such as an army or a king’s retinue) and made sure that they would be able to secure lodgings in the next town.  The modern word is very similar in meaning.  A “harbinger” is a forerunner, letting you know that something else is coming.  This matches your prediction exactly.  Keep this choice.

(C)  This word is also tricky.  You may have learned that a vestige is a trace or a sign.  At first that seems exactly like your prediction.  Think of a vestige as more like a footprint.  It tells you that something has already passed or happened.   You are looking for a word that indicates that something will happen in the future.  Eliminate this choice.

(D)  The Arctic and the Antarctic cannot be counterexamples because the same thing is happening in both places.  Temperatures are rising in both places, and that may mean that temperatures will rise in other places.  The rising temperatures are consistent.  Furthermore, this does not match your prediction.  Eliminate this choice.

(E)  This word, like option (C), points to something that has occurred in the past.  You are looking for a word that points to the future.  Eliminate this choice.

Words used in this SC:
Polarities: two opposite or contrasting principles or tendencies
Harbingers: people or things that foreshadow or foretell the coming of another
Vestiges: traces or signs left by something that is no longer present
Counterexamples: exceptions to a proposed general rule
Aftereffects:  delayed effects that are not immediately manifested

On sat.collegeboard.org, 45% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT vocabulary, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Idioms

Today’s link is actually two links.  Read this article and then this article.  Both articles are about the same event, but they have very different interpretations of that event.  Why do they differ so much?  What does this tell you about finding news on the internet?  Even if you think that you have found a good news source, double check the accuracy of the report.

Next think about these articles in terms of a current event.  How could you use the information surrounding the fact that a man just won \$338 million to support a position on an SAT essay? What conclusions could you draw about the themes of money, fame, power, motivation, success, planning, chance, and even information?

## Writing: Identifying Sentence Errors

The following sentence contains either a single error or no error at all. If the sentence contains an error, select the one underlined part that must be changed to make the sentence correct. If the sentence contains no error, select choice E.

Read the entire sentence to yourself, listening for errors.  Then quickly check each underlined portion of the sentence against the Big 8 Grammar Rules.  Identify and mark any error, but be sure to look at all of the answer choices.

Between 1508 to 1512, Michelangelo, working on a scaffold 60 feet above the floor, painted the vaulted ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome with hundreds of giant figures that represented his vision of the world’s creation. No error

(A)  The underlined word “to” connects two different times.  This is actually a conflation of two different idioms.  You can say “from 1508 to 1512,” but there is no “from” in this sentence.  Instead, you have the word “between.”  The correct idiom is “between x and y,” so you must change the “to” into an “and.”  Make this change and quickly look at the rest of the answer choices.

(B)  Whenever you see an “-ing” ending, check to make sure it is necessary.  Here, the “-ing” ending lets you know that this is not the main verb.  The main verb is “painted.”  The entire part of the sentence that reads “working on a scaffold 60 feet above the floor” is set off by commas and simply describes Michelangelo’s position while painting.  The preposition “on” is the correct preposition because Michelangelo is actually on top of the scaffold.  There is no error here.

(C)   This underlined portion is idiomatically correct.  You can use the word “with” to say “I paint with a brush” and mean that you are using the brush, but you can also use the word “with” to indicate what you have painted.  Both uses are correct.  Michelangelo has painted “hundreds of giant figures.”  The preposition “of” is also idiomatically correct.  There is no error here.

(D)  When you see the word “that,” check to make sure that the word “which” is not needed.  The word “which” must have a comma before it, and there is no comma here.  The word “represented” is also correct.  It is in past tense to match the tense of “painted.”  Although you could change the tense of “represented” and still be technically correct, you are looking for errors, not ways to revise the sentence.  There is no error here.

(E)  This answer choice cannot be correct because you have already identified an error.

On sat.collegeboard.org, 55% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT writing, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Equation of a Line

How do you make sure that you have the best doctors and the best conditions for patients?  First there was a push for doctors to get more sleep.  Now there is a push to make sure that doctors are getting more hours to finish their work.  Take a look at the debate in this current event.  Write down the broad themes in this article, and the specific details that will make you sound informed.  Then try linking this current event to the following previous SAT essay prompts:  Is there always another explanation or another point of view?  Can success be disastrous?  Should people let their feelings guide them when they make important decisions?  Should people change their decisions when circumstances change, or is it best for them to stick with their original decisions?

## Geometry: Coordinate Geometry

Read the following SAT test question and then select the correct answer.

Always read the question carefully and identify the bottom line.  Assess your options for reaching the bottom line, and use the most efficient method to attack the problem.  When you have an answer, loop back to verify that your answer matches the bottom line.

If the graph of the function f is a line with slope 2, which of the following could be the equation of f?

Bottom Line: WOTF (which of the following)

Assess your Options:  For a “which of the following” question you should look at the answers choices, but not until you have used what you know about the equation of a line to decide what kind of equation you need to find.  Start with the information that you are given.

Attack the Problem:  Remember the generic equation for a line is y = mx + b.  In any equation, f(x) and y can mean the same thing.  The variable m is the slope of the line.  You know that your slope must be 2.  Plug that 2 into the equation.  You now have:

f(x) = 2x + b

(The variable b is the y-intercept.  You were not told anything about the y-intercept, so that could be any number.  All you need to do is match the part that you do know, the 2x.)

Loop Back:  You used all the information that you were given, so look down at your answer choices.

(A) f(x) = 4x - 2
(B) f(x) = 2x + 4
(C) f(x) = -2x – 2
(D) $f(x)=\frac{1}{2}x+2$
(E) $f(x)=-\frac{1}{2}x+\frac{1}{2}$

On sat.collegeboard.org, 64% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT math, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Sentence Completions

When the SAT test makers write an essay question, they give you a little bit of information.  Generally, it does not take much thought to agree with whatever has been stated, or to simply use the exact same words in the prompt to frame your essay.  Really high scoring students know that the way the question is phrased may prompt students to answer one way when normally they might answer another way.  For example, read this SAT essay prompt:

“There is, of course, no legitimate branch of science that enables us to predict the future accurately.  Yet the degree of change in the world is so overwhelming and so promising, that the future, I believe, is far brighter than anyone has contemplated since the end of the Second World War.  Assignment: Is the world changing for the better?”

Now, you may really believe the world is changing for the better, but this prompt leads many students to answer yes without providing good reasons.  Maybe the world is fixing one problem while a new problem develops.  Maybe someone needs to point out that there have been many wars after World War II.  Before you answer a prompt, rephrase the question in your own words and be sure that you know what it is asking and whether the prompt itself is influencing your thought about the subject.  You want your essay to clearly demonstrate that you have a reason beyond the prompt to think the way that you do.

Leading questions occur outside the SAT too.  Check out this current event that shows that how people ask questions can change the results of polls about global warming.  If you want to use this as one of your five prepared current events, make notes about the broad themes in this article as well as specific details and facts that you can use to back up an opinion on an SAT essay prompt.

Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

Cover up your answer choices as you read the sentence carefully.  That way, incorrect answers will not distract you as you predict a word to fill the blank.  When you have your prediction, match it to the correct answer choice.  Eliminate any answer that does not match your prediction.  Make sure that you look at all of the answer choices before you select an answer.

Bolstered by his unflagging determination and ------- physical preparation, Tom Whittaker became the first amputee to successfully climb to the summit of Mount Everest.

Did you notice two Knowsys SAT words in the sentence?  Even if you do not know what “bolstered” and “unflagging” mean, you know that Whittaker was determined to climb the mountain and that he was successful.  In order to do that he, he must have trained hard.  Predict that his physical preparation was “persistent,” “diligent,” “steady,” or even “unflagging,” if you recognize the term.  Then look down at your answer choices.

(A) fortuitous
(B) assiduous
(C) heedless
(D) expeditious
(E) pedantic

(A)  Perhaps you know that the Latin root “fort” generally means strong and figure that Whittaker’s preparation made him stronger.  Or perhaps you link this word to the word “fortunate” and realize that this is a positive word. This answer choice is here to trick you.  The word “fortuitous” does not just mean “fortunate,” although many fortuitous occurrences are fortunate.  The word “fortuitous” is related to the idea of chance, of accidental luck.  There is no way that Whittaker accidentally practiced or that he got lucky and just ended up physically prepared – he worked hard.  Bottom line: this choice doesn’t really match your prediction.  Eliminate it.

(B)  Assiduous is a difficult word.  If you don’t know it, you cannot eliminate it.

(C)  If you heed something, you pay attention to it.  Being heedless would be the opposite of paying attention.  You know that Whittaker paid attention to physical preparation.  Eliminate this choice.

(D)  Knowsys word!  If you don’t know the definition right away, think of expedited shipping.  That is when you pay extra to make sure a package gets somewhere quickly.  The idea here is not to prepare for the climb quickly, but to prepare for it in such a way as to be ready for the challenge.  “Expeditious” does not mean “diligent.”  Eliminate this choice.

(E)  This word is going to be really confusing if you assume that the Latin root “ped” means “foot.”  The same root can also mean “child.”  If you know that teachers have been called “pedagogues,” you will realize that this word also does not match your prediction.  “Pedantic” means acting like a teacher, especially in situations where no one wants a teacher.  Eliminate this choice.

You only have one answer remaining.  If you have eliminated all the other answer choices for specific reasons, then you can confidently select that answer, even if you do not know precisely what it means.

Words used in this SC:
Bolstered: encouraged or supported
Unflagging: not declining in strength or vigor, tireless
Amputee: a person who has had a limb removed
Fortuitous: happening by a lucky chance, accidental
Assiduous: hard-working, diligent, or industrious
Heedless: unaware, not noticing something
Expeditious: fast, prompt, speedy
Pedantic: teaching or ostentatious in one’s learning, too concerned about formal details

On sat.collegeboard.org, 37% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT vocabulary, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Sentence Completions

Those who overcome obstacles inspire others to do the same.  Remember the young girl who was shot for advocating education for girls?  (You can review the original story from last October here.)  This girl has been nominated for a Nobel peace prize and is now resuming her own education.  If this story interests you, write down the broad themes from it (such as education) and specific details (such as the spelling of Malala and her age, 15).  Think about how you could use the broad themes in this current event to support a position on almost any essay prompt, then try connecting it to the prompts below:

(1) Is it important to question the ideas and decisions of people in positions of authority?
(2) Can knowledge be a burden rather than a benefit?
(3) Has today’s abundance of information only made it more difficult to understand the world around us?

Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

Cover up the answer choices until you have read the sentence carefully and made a prediction to fill the easier blank.  Then eliminate any choices that do not match your prediction.  Do the same with the other blank.

Laboratories have been warned that provisions for animal protection that in the past were merely ------- will now be mandatory; ------- of this policy will lose their federal research grants.

Look at the first blank.  Animal protection was once one thing, but now it is mandatory.  The “now” lets you know that a change has been made.  You can predict the word “optional,” but remember that any word that could be used for something that is “not mandatory” will work.

(C) disregarded . . proponents
(D) recommended . . violators
(E) compulsory . . resisters

(A) Your teachers have probably told you at some point that you would have a comprehensive test.  That kind of test covers a lot of the topics that you studied.  These tests are generally not optional!  Look back at the original sentence and notice the word “merely.”  The words “merely” and “comprehensive” sound odd together.  This is like saying that the test “only includes a lot,” which is not strictly logical.  Eliminate this choice.  (B)  If you don’t know a word, keep the answer choice.  (C) Something disregarded could be optional. Keep this choice.  (D)  This seems like the strongest answer.  Recommended means optional but advisable, and it seems advisable to protect animals.  Keep it.  (E)  This word is a synonym of mandatory; it is the opposite of what you want.  Eliminate it.

Now look at the second blank.  The second blank involves a punishment, the loss of research grants.  People who do not do mandatory things get punished for it.  Predict “disobedient people” and look down at your answer choices.

(C) disregarded . . proponents
(D) recommended . . violators

(B)  Knowsys word!  People who advocate something are for that thing.  If they are for the policy, they will not disobey it.  Eliminate this choice.  (C) A proponent is also for something.  Eliminate this choice.  (D)  You see signs everywhere that list rules along with the words, “Violators will be prosecuted.”  Violators break rules.  Keep this choice.

Words used in this SC:
Comprehensive: broadly or completely covering something
Nominal: being such in name only, or minimal
Advocates: people speaking in support of something
Disregarded: ignored
Recommended: suggested, encouraged
Violators: people who break the rules
Compulsory: required, mandatory
Resisters: people who fight against something

On sat.collegeboard.org, 73% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT vocabulary, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Modifiers

Traveling is easier than ever today, and many people routinely take vacations in distant places.  Travelers can increase awareness of wonders and issues around the globe, but they can also drastically change the places that they visit.  Take a look at this article about how tourists are changing the feeding habits of stingrays in the Caribbean.  Think about the SAT question, “Can success be disastrous?” in terms of the area’s success in entertaining tourists.  Then think about the broad themes and specific details that could help you use this current event as an excellent example for any SAT essay prompt.

## Writing: Improving Sentences

Part or all of the following sentence is underlined; beneath the sentence are five ways of phrasing the underlined material. Select the option that produces the best sentence. If you think the original phrasing produces a better sentence than any of the alternatives, select choice A.

Read the entire sentence carefully, listening for errors.  Then focus on the underlined portion of the sentence and check it against the Big Eight Grammar Rules.  Focus on the first error that you find to quickly eliminate answer choices that do not address that error.

Combining both figurative and abstract elements in his paintings, such painters as Franz Kline and Richard Diebenkorn were greatly influenced by American artist Willem de Kooning, a key figure in the post-war Abstract Expressionist movement.

The key to this question is realizing that the only part of this sentence that you cannot change is an introductory phrase.  In an introductory phrase, the subject is not clear; you do not know who is doing the “combining,” although you do know that the subject must be male and singular due to the pronoun “his.”  For any introductory phrase followed by a comma, the very next independent noun must be the subject of the sentence.  You can eliminate any answer choice that does not have the subject who is “combining” as the very first independent noun!

(A)  such painters as Franz Kline and Richard Diebenkorn were greatly influenced by American artist Willem de Kooning, a key figure in the post-war Abstract Expressionist movement

(B)  a key figure in the post-war Abstract Expressionist movement who greatly influenced such painters as Franz Kline and Richard Diebenkorn was American artist Willem de Kooning

(C)  American artist Willem de Kooning became a key figure in the post-war Abstract Expressionist movement and greatly influenced such painters as Franz Kline and Richard Diebenkorn

(D)  Willem de Kooning, an American artist who became a key figure in the post-war Abstract Expressionist movement and greatly influenced such painters as Franz Kline and Richard Diebenkorn

(E) and a key figure in the post-war Abstract Expressionist movement, Willem de Kooning greatly influenced such painters as Franz Kline and Richard Diebenkorn as an American artist

Explanations:

(A)  This answer choice matches the original.  It follows the introductory phrase with “such painters,” but you know that the subject of this sentence must be male and singular.  Eliminate this choice.

(B)  The words “a key figure” identify the artist “Willem de Kooning,” but you do not learn the name of the artist until the very last part of the sentence.  This choice does not fix the modification error that you found, and it is also wordy and unnatural because it inverts the subject and verb, putting “was” before “Kooning” in an unnecessarily passive structure.  Eliminate this choice.

(C)  This choice fixes the problem that you found in the original sentence.  The first independent noun after the comma is “Willem de Kooning” because the words “American artist” modify how you understand who Kooning is.  The rest of the sentence is clear and free of errors.  Keep this choice.

(D)  This sentence is long, but it is still a fragment.  There is no main verb because everything after the comma describes who Kooning was, but does so without a “to be” verb.  Also, notice that Kooning’s name is alone between two commas.  This construction is generally only used when you are providing an alternative way to address someone or when you are addressing that person directly.  Eliminate this choice.

(E)  This choice is unnecessarily wordy.   One of the issues that the extra words creates is that the words “as an American Artist” are now separated from Kooning and seem more connected with Diebenkorn, changing the meaning of the sentence.  Eliminate this choice.

On sat.collegeboard.org, 63% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT vocabulary, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Absolute Value

Happy St. Patrick’s Day!  If you like celebrating holidays, consider tracing the history of a holiday celebration as one of your historical events, or even tracing the history of a holiday up to the present for a current event.  There are many misconceptions about the origins of ideas and traditions, and the way that certain practices came about is fascinating.  Think about how this article about the history of St. Patrick’s day could be used to answer the following SAT essay questions:

(1)  Should people change their decisions when circumstances change, or is it best for them to stick with their original decisions?
(2)  Do you think that ease does not challenge us and that we need adversity to help us discover who we are?
(3)  What motivates people to change?

## Algebra: Absolute Value

Read the following SAT test question and then select the correct answer.
If , which of the following could be true?

Bottom Line: which of the following COULD be true?

Assess your Options:  You could come up with answers to solve this problem, but that will be a waste of time if they are not included in your answer choices.  Instead, look at the answer choices and methodically eliminate incorrect answers.

(A) a = 0
(B) b = 0
(C) a = b
(D) a = -b
(E) a = 1

For a “which of the following” question, Knowsys recommends that you begin with answer choice (E).

Hint:  Instead of thinking of the bars in your equation as absolute value, think of them as simply showing where a positive number will be.  If you do this, you will not have to plug in actual numbers and you can check each answer choice using logic. (This works because an absolute value simply tells you how far a number is from zero.  The double bars only affect negative numbers, making them positive.)

(E) a = 1    Plug a = 1 into your original equation.   Is there any way to start out with the number 1 and subtract a positive number to get the answer 5?  There is not.  Eliminate this answer.

(D) a = -b     This answer choice has a negative sign, but remember that any negative sign will go within the bars and come out a positive number.  So if you plug in b where the variable a is in this equation, you still end up with bb = 5.  Is that possible?  No!  Anything minus itself will be zero.  Eliminate this answer.

(C) a = b     This answer is essentially the same as the last one!  If you plug in b where you have an a, you wind up with bb = 5.  Again, anything minus itself will be zero.  Eliminate this answer.

(B) b = 0     Plug in 0 for the b in your equation.  You now have a positive number minus 0 equals 5.  Is that possible?  Yes!  5 – 0 = 5.  You are finished.  You don’t have to know that a can be either negative 5 or 5, and you don’t have to check the last answer choice.  Let’s check it just for practice.

(A) a = 0     Is there any way to start with 0 and subtract a positive number to get 5?  No!  Eliminate this choice.

On sat.collegeboard.org, 63% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT math, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Circles

Anytime something new happens to something very old, the result is a rich current event that could be interpreted in many different ways.  The Catholic Church has chosen a new pope, and for the first time ever, the pope is from the Americas.  Look for broad themes in this article that would make it easy to relate this current event to an SAT essay topic.

## Geometry: Circles

Read the following SAT test question and then select the correct answer.

Read the question carefully and identify the bottom line.  Then assess your options and choose the most efficient method to attack the problem.  When you have an answer, loop back to make sure that your answer matches the bottom line.
In the figure above, a shaded circle with diameter  is tangent to a large semicircle with diameter  at points C and D. Point is the center of the semicircle, and  is perpendicular to . If the area of the large semicircle is 24, what is the area of the shaded circle?

Bottom Line: A sm =? (What is the area of the small, shaded circle?)

Assess your Options:  There are two good ways to approach this problem.  Both ways require you to know the formula for the area of a circle. On collegeboard.org you will find a method that is especially efficient for students who are good at writing equations.  The method used here will focus on geometry skills and estimation in order to avoid the mistakes that often come with working more abstract formulas.

Attack the Problem:  You know the most about the large circle, so start there.  A semicircle is just half of a whole circle.  Therefore, to find the area of the whole circle, you would simply double the 24.

24 × 2 = 48

If you know the area of the large circle, you can use the area formula to find out more information.  The area of a circle is $A=\Pi(r)^{2}$  Plug in the area you just found to find the radius.

Note: working backwards using the area formula for a circle is difficult, because using pi will always result in icky decimals.  If you glance at your answer choices, all of them are whole numbers.  You can estimate pi as 3 instead of 3.14 in order to keep this problem as easy as possible.

48 = 3r²
16 =
4 = r

You now have the radius for the big circle.  Now look back up at the diagram.  The radius for the big circle is also the diameter for the little circle!  If the diameter of the little circle is 4, the radius will be half of that.  Once you know that the radius of the little circle is 2, you are ready to find the area!

$A=\Pi(r)^{2}$
A = 3 × 2²

A = 3 × 4
A = 12

Loop Back:  You found the area of the small circle, so you are ready to look at your answer choices.

(A) 8
(B) 10
(C) 12
(D) 14
(E) It cannot be determined from the information given.

On sat.collegeboard.org, 56% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT math, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Subject Verb Agreement

Does history repeat itself?  Think about what you learned in your history classes about the Cold War in general and the Korean War in particular.  Then read this article about North Korea’s threats against the United States.  Why are these events happening now?  What is the motivation behind the actions of different countries?  How could you use the facts from this article to back up an opinion on a variety of SAT questions involving the themes of motivation, power, the trajectory of history, authority, knowledge, and even creativity?

## Writing: Improving Sentences

Part or all of the following sentence is underlined; beneath the sentence are five ways of phrasing the underlined material. Select the option that produces the best sentence. If you think the original phrasing produces a better sentence than any of the alternatives, select choice A.

Read the original sentence to yourself, listening for errors.  Then focus on the underlined portion and evaluate it using the Big 8 Grammar Rules.  Use the first error that you find to quickly eliminate wrong answer choices.

Listening to good storybooks sharpen children’s awareness and appreciation for the sounds of spoken language.

Check the first underlined word first.  “Sharpen” is a verb, so find the subject of the sentence and make sure the subject and verb agree.  You might be tempted to say that “storybooks sharpen” is correct, but storybooks cannot be the subject of this sentence.  “To good storybooks” is a prepositional phrase, and the subject of the sentence cannot be the object of a prepositional phrase.  Instead, the subject is actually “listening.”  You would not say “listening sharpen awareness;” you would say “listening sharpens awareness.”  You need a singular verb to agree with a singular subject.  Look down at your answer choices.

(A) sharpen children’s awareness
(B) sharpens children’s awareness of
(C) are what sharpens the awareness of children
(D) sharpens the awareness of children
(E) is to sharpen children’s awareness

(A) The first answer choice for this type of question always matches the original sentence, so you can eliminate it right away.

(B) This answer choice fixes the error that you found.  It also adds a preposition, so check to make sure that the word “of” is necessary in this sentence.  Parallelism dictates that you should have the same form of words on either side of an “and.”  In the original sentence, you have “awareness and appreciation for” something.  You would not say “I have an awareness for something;” it is correct to say “I have an awareness of something.”  “Awareness of and appreciation for” a certain thing is both parallel and idiomatically correct.  Keep this answer choice and quickly check the remaining choices.

(C) You already know that the word “listening” is singular, but the verb “are” is plural.  Eliminate this choice because the subject and verb do not match.

(D) This choice is more confused than the previous ones, and there is no parallelism.  Instead of having “awareness of and appreciation for,” which is balanced and correct, you now have “awareness of children and appreciation.”  The appreciation is no longer the children’s, and the meaning of the sentence has subtly shifted.  Eliminate this choice.

(E) This answer choice also changes the meaning of the sentence.  In the original sentence, you learn that listening benefits children in specific ways.  However, in this answer choice listening “is to,” (exists for the purpose of) benefiting children in specific ways, an odd statement to make.  The phrase “is to” is unnecessary.  Eliminate this choice.

On sat.collegeboard.org, 51% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT writing, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Multiples

## Arithmetic: Multiples

Read the following SAT test question and then select the correct answer.

Approach each problem the same way so that you feel confident about your ability to solve it.  Start by reading the question carefully and identifying your bottom line.  Then assess your options and choose the most efficient method to attack the problem.  When you have an answer, loop back to verify that the answer addresses the bottom line.

Add 8x to 2x and then subtract 5 from the sum. If x is a positive integer, the result must be an integer multiple of

Bottom Line:  multiple of = ?

Assess your Options:  You have to write an equation for this problem, but after doing so you can use logic or the strategy of plugging in numbers to find possible answers to the equation.  Both methods are quick and will result in the correct answer.

Attack the Problem:  Your first step is to translate all the words you are given into an equation. If you add 8x to 2x, you get 8x + 2x.  Then subtract 5.  You should have:

8x + 2x – 5

Always simplify as much as possible before moving to the next step.  Here, you can combine like terms.

10x – 5

Now go back to the other information that you are given.  The variable x must be a positive integer.  Plug in the smallest possible value for x, and you will get the smallest possible result of this equation.  Plug in x = 1.

10(1) – 5 = 5

Now, multiples will always get larger, so there are other possible answers to this equation.  However, this is the smallest answer and you are looking for what the result “must” be an integer multiple of.  Multiples are simply the product of a number and an integer.  5 is a prime number, so the only thing that the answer must be a multiple of is 5.

(If you want to make sure you are on the right track, plug in x = 2.  The answer is 15.  15 is still a multiple of 5.  Any positive number that you plug in will still be a multiple of 5 because when you subtract 5 from a multiple of 10, you will always get a number ending in a 5.)

Loop Back:  You found that the answer must be a multiple of 5.  Look down at your answer choices.

(A) 2
(B) 5
(C) 8
(D) 10
(E) 15

On sat.collegeboard.org, 68% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT math, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Sentence Completions

Have you ever seen the movie Jaws?  Is anyone on the shark’s side?  Take a look at this current event and think about how you could use this example for an SAT essay asking, “Is there always another explanation or another point of view?”  Look for themes and facts about sharks that could be used to substantiate an opinion on a variety of issues.  Consider the question, “Should people let their feelings guide them when they make important decisions?”  Maybe you don’t feel like petting a shark, but you can understand why some people want to protect them.

Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

Always cover your answers and read the sentence carefully.  You will be able to use context clues to predict a word to fill the blank.  Then you can match your prediction to the correct answer and eliminate any words that do not match.  Be sure to look at all of the answer choices before selecting your answer.

To some scholars of medieval Britain, the legendary King Arthur is a genuine historical figure, while to others he and his Round Table are nothing more than ------- of myth and romance.

This sentence sets up a contrast; some scholars think one way, while others think another way.  The first set of scholars thinks that King Arthur is genuine.  The word genuine means real, so the second group of scholars must think that he is not real, or that he was imagined.   The word “myth” confirms that the second group does not believe Arthur and his Round Table are real.  Predict a word such as “fictions” or “inventions” and look down at your answer choices.

(A) harbingers
(B) trifles
(C) spoilers
(D) figments
(E) inventors

(A) If you know the verb “harbor,” as in harbor a fugitive, you may be able to deduce the meaning of this word.  Those who harbor fugitives give shelter to people running from the law.  This word is related to a word used in the fifteenth century for people who were sent ahead to arrange shelter for important travelers.  Over time the meaning has broadened to mean anything foreshadowing a future event.  The stories of King Arthur are in the past, not the future, and this word does not match your prediction.  Eliminate this choice.

(B)  Trifles are not very important, but this contrast has nothing to do with importance.  The word “trifle” does not mean “fiction,” so eliminate this choice.

(C)  Even if you do not know what the word “spoilers” means, it probably sounds negative to you.  Your prediction was not negative, and there is nothing that indicates that myths and romances are perceived negatively in this sentence.  Eliminate this choice.

(D) You have probably heard someone say the words “a figment of your imagination.”  If figments are imaginary things, that matches your prediction exactly.  Keep this choice and quickly look at the last answer choice.

(E)  Inventors may produce inventions, or even something fictional, but they are not themselves made-up or imaginary.  Eliminate this answer choice.

Words used in this SC:
Harbingers: people or events that foreshadow or announce the coming of something
Trifles: things of very little value
Spoilers: people who rob others or things that spoil something
Figments: fabrications or fantasies, imagined things
Inventors: people who create new things

On sat.collegeboard.org, 68% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT vocabulary, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Sentence Structure

The SAT essay question is essentially a broad question about the state of humanity.  That is why you can research a few examples from history, literature, and current events and have details prepared for your test before you are given an essay prompt.  Read this current event about how scientists have connected the brains of two rats.  Write down important details from the article.  Then answer this SAT essay question using the details and facts you wrote: Is there always another explanation or point of view?  If you feel comfortable using this example to support an idea on that topic, try this topic as well:  Is creativity needed more than ever in the world today?  The more detail you remember from a current event, the more likely it is that you will be able to relate that current event to your test question.

## Writing: Improving Sentences

Part or all of the following sentence is underlined; beneath the sentence are five ways of phrasing the underlined material. Select the option that produces the best sentence. If you think the original phrasing produces a better sentence than any of the alternatives, select choice A.

Read the entire sentence to yourself, listening for errors.  Next, evaluate the underlined portion of the sentence using the Big 8 Grammar Rules.  Focus on the first error that you find to quickly eliminate any answer choices that do not fix that error.

The finest quality raw silk comes from the commonly domesticated silkworm, Bombyx moriit feeds on the leaves of the mulberry tree.

This sentence is a comma splice; it has two complete sentences that are incorrectly joined by a comma.  You will need your answer choice to fix this problem.

(A) it feeds
(B) feeding
(C) they feed
(D) which feeds
(E) having fed

(A)  Eliminate the first choice because it matches the original sentence.

(B)  The simple subject of the first part of the sentence is “silk.”  The silkworm cannot be the subject of the sentence because it is part of a prepositional phrase (from the commonly domesticated silkworm).  It doesn’t make sense to say that the silk is feeding.  Eliminate this answer choice.

(C)  This choice does not fix the sentence structure problem, and it introduces a new problem.  The word “silkworm” is singular, but the pronoun “they” is plural.  Eliminate this choice.

(D)  The underlined portion of the sentence comes after a comma.  If you want to add additional information after a comma, you need the word “which” rather than the word “that.”  This choice fixes the original problem with the sentence by turning the last portion of it into an appropriate modifying phrase.  Keep this choice and quickly check the remaining answer choice.

(E)  Whenever you see an “ing” ending, check to make sure that this is the correct form of the verb.  When the word “having” comes before a verb, it indicates that this action comes prior to another action.  For example: Having finished my homework early, I went out to eat with my friends.  In your original sentence, there is no other verb that could be attributed to the silkworm, so this choice is unnecessarily wordy.  Eliminate this answer choice.

On sat.collegeboard.org, 75% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT writing, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Subject Verb Agreement

If you have been following the news about the meteor that hit Russia, here are some more details about the event.  This article will help you make human connections through your current event by showing how people reacted to a sudden event.  Some searched for explanations, some volunteered for clean-up, and some strove to profit from the event.  Motivation is a reoccurring theme in SAT essay prompts, and these responses could be used to support a variety of opinions about human nature and activities.

## Writing: Identifying Sentence Errors

The following sentence contains either a single error or no error at all. If the sentence contains an error, select the one underlined part that must be changed to make the sentence correct. If the sentence contains no error, select choice E.

Read the sentence to yourself, listening for errors.  Quickly check each underlined portion against the Big 8 Grammar Rules.  Identify and mark any error that you find, but be sure to look at all the choices before selecting your answer.

Besides conserving forest resources, recycling produces fewer pollutants than does the conventional pulping and bleaching processes that are normally used to create paper. No error

(A)  Any time you see a verb with an “–ing” ending, check to make sure that the word is in the proper form.  Here you have an introductory phrase followed by a comma.  The “ing” format helps to indicate that this phrase is supplemental, that it modifies the coming independent clause.  There is no error here.

(B)  The word “than” indicates a comparison.  You already know that the sentence will contain a comparison because of the word “fewer.”  Now check the verb “does.”  Normally a verb comes after the subject, so you might be tempted to link “recycling” and “does.”  However, this portion of the comparison is actually focused on “the conventional pulping and bleaching processes” and what they do to create paper.  Notice that “processes” is plural, so you need the word “do” instead of the word “does.”  This is inverted subject-verb error and is often tested on the SAT. Mark this error and quickly check the other choices.

(C)  The words “that” and “which” both provide additional information, but the word “which” must be preceded by a comma.  There is no comma before the underlined portion, so “that” is correct.  There is no error here.

(D)  Processes are used to do something.  No other form of “create” will work in this underlined portion.  There is no error here.

(E)  This cannot be the answer because you already identified an error.

On sat.collegeboard.org, 73% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT vocabulary, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Coordinate Geometry

Isn't it fascinating that no matter how long people study people, there is still more to learn?  Take a look at this current event article that endeavors to explain why women talk more than men.  Pick out the broad topics in this article.  How could you use the facts from this article to support a position on the following SAT essay prompts?

1. Do we need other people in order to understand ourselves?
2. Should heroes be defined as people who say what they think when we ourselves lack the courage to say it?
3. Are people best defined by what they do?

## Geometry: Coordinate Geometry

Read the following SAT test question and then select the correct answer.

Always read the question carefully and identify the bottom line.  Assess your options for reaching the bottom line and choose the most efficient method to attack the problem.  When you have an answer, loop back to make sure that the answer matches the bottom line.

What is the equation of the line parallel to the x-axis and four units above the x-axis?

Bottom Line: equation of a line

Assess your Options:  You could look down at the answer choices, but if you look down without thinking first you will often confuse yourself.  Instead, use the information that you are given to write an equation.

Attack the Problem:  You know that you are dealing with an x-axis, which means you must use a normal xy-graph with a vertical y-axis and a horizontal x-axis.  Draw this on your paper.  Next, imagine 4 ticks on the y-axis and put a little dot four units above the x-axis.  Draw a horizontal line that is parallel to the x-axis.  Does that line ever leave y = 4?  No!  That is the equation of the line.

Note:  If you write x = 4, you create a vertical line.  Think about it this way: the x values change from negative infinity to positive infinity.  If you choose a single x value, the line along this value cannot be parallel to the x-axis because it is limited to a single value.

Loop Back:  You needed an equation of a line, and not necessarily one that mentioned x at all.  You found one.  Look down at your answer choices.

(A) x = -4
(B) x = 4
(C) y = -4
(D) y = 0
(E) y = 4

On sat.collegeboard.org, 67% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT math, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Sentence Completions

Current events may be used to distinguish the present from the past or link the present to the past.  You have all learned about the 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, the one abolishing slavery.  Read this article explaining that the last state has finally ratified that amendment.  After all these years, is this an empty gesture or a meaningful conclusion?  Pay particular attention to the motivation of those behind the ratification and notice that they were not government employees.  How many common SAT themes can you spot in this current event?  Which details should you write down in order to use this current event effectively in an essay format?

Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

Cover up the answer choices and read the sentence carefully.  Select the blank that seems easier to you and focus on predicting a word for that blank.   Uncover your answer choices and eliminate any that do not match your prediction.  Use the same process with the other blank.

Allison had only ------- knowledge of the recent legislation; although she had glanced at a summary, she had not ------- the details of the new law's many provisions.

Start with the first blank.  When you use the word “only,” you are generally trying to emphasize that the amount of something is small.  The idea that Allison did not have a lot of knowledge is also supported by the fact that she “glanced at a summary.”  Predict that she has “a little” knowledge and look down at your answer choices.

(A) superficial . . examined
(B) subjective . . studied
(C) sketchy . . vacated
(D) questionable . . endorsed
(E) cursory . . opposed

(A) A superficial observer only sees what is obvious.  Allison only took a glance.  The word “superficial” could mean “a little,” so keep it.  (B) The word “subjective” is the opposite of “objective.”  “Subjective” does not mean “a little,” so eliminate this choice.  (C) A sketch is quick and hasty, and so was Allison’s look at the summary.  “Sketchy” can mean “a little,” so keep this choice.  (D) “Questionable” does not usually mean “a little,” but the word could be used to emphasize that Alison does not know much about the legislation.  Keep it.  (E) The Latin root “curs” means “run.”  This word also implies haste, just as Alison’s glance did, so keep it.

Now look at the second blank.  It comes after the keyword “although.”  This word lets you know that there must be a contrast between the next two ideas.  If the first idea is that Allison only glanced at a summary, then the second idea would logically be that she carefully read all of the details.  Predict “carefully read” and look down at the remaining answer choices.

(A) superficial . . examined
(C) sketchy . . vacated
(D) questionable . . endorsed
(E) cursory . . opposed

(A) “Examined” matches your prediction perfectly.  Before you select it, check the other answer choices.  (C) The Latin root “vac” means empty, and you have probably heard of vacant houses before.  “Vacated” does not mean “carefully read,” so eliminate this choice.  (D)  You know that when celebrities endorse products, they recommend them to the public.  You do not care how Allison felt about the legislation; you just want to know that she read it carefully.  Eliminate this choice.  (E) “Opposed” does not mean “carefully read.”  Eliminate this choice.

Words used in this SC:
Superficial: shallow, based on face value
Examined: observed or inspected critically, studied
Subjective: based on feeling rather than reasoning
Sketchy: rough or hasty
Vacated: left or moved out
Questionable: problematic, open to doubt
Endorsed: supported with approval or wrote on a check
Cursory: brief or broad, not cautious or detailed
Opposed: against something

On sat.collegeboard.org, 66% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT vocabulary, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Subject Verb Agreement

You probably already heard about the meteor that landed in Russia.  Take a moment to review the relevant facts here.  Then think about how you can use an event that everyone is already talking about as an excellent current event example on the SAT essay.  Think about broad themes that relate to this topic, such as technology, preparation and planning, fear, organized responses, sudden change, and many more.

## Writing: Improving Sentences

Part or all of the following sentence is underlined; beneath the sentence are five ways of phrasing the underlined material. Select the option that produces the best sentence. If you think the original phrasing produces a better sentence than any of the alternatives, select choice A.

Read the entire original sentence to yourself, listening for errors.  Then evaluate the underlined portion of the sentence using the Big 8 Grammar Rules.  Focus on the first error that you find to quickly eliminate wrong answer choices.

Since William the Conqueror in 1066, every British sovereign has been crowned in Westminster Abbey except Edward V and Edward VIII, neither of them were crowned.

The underlined portion of this sentence contains the word “neither,” a word that should prompt you to check subject and verb agreement.  There are two people involved in this sentence, but is the subject plural?  This sentence is saying that neither one king nor the other king was crowned in the aforementioned place.  Notice the verb “were”!  You cannot have the plural verb “were” in this sentence; you must use “was.”  Look down at your answer choices.

(A) neither of them were
(B) neither were
(C) neither of whom was
(D) with neither being
(E) with neither who had been

(A)  Eliminate this choice without reading it because it matches the original sentence.

(B)  This answer choice does not fix the subject and verb agreement error that you found.  Eliminate it.

(C)  This one fixes the first error that you found.  Before you assume that it is correct, notice that it also changes the pronoun “them” to “whom.”  Check to make sure the “whom” is okay.  You are talking about a person using a singular verb, so the plural pronoun “them” was already suspect.  Your Knowsys book spends a lot of time on choosing between “who” and “whom,” but one of the rules that you learn is that you must always use “whom” after a preposition.  The word “of” is a preposition, so “whom” is correct.  Quickly check the other answer choices.

(D)  You should always avoid choices using the word “being” because it implies an ongoing action.  The two crownings that did not happen were in the past.  Eliminate this answer choice.

(E) This choice is unnecessarily complex and wordy.  Like the choice before it, it incorrectly uses the word “with,” which generally means “accompanied by” or “characterized by,” neither of which makes sense in this context.

On sat.collegeboard.org, 53% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT writing, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Pronouns

Did you watch the State of the Union Address?  If you missed President Obama’s speech, here is a text version.  This could be one of your current events, but it is a long speech, so it might be better to look up a couple of the issues that the President wants to bring before the country.  One of the things the President mentions is preschool.  Read this article and think about how many different themes are mentioned.  Then check the list of previously released essay topics (online or in your Knowsys book on page 229) and imagine how you could use this issue as an excellent example for any of these topics.  It directly relates to many of the SAT questions!

## Writing: Identifying Sentence Errors

The following sentence contains either a single error or no error at all. If the sentence contains an error, select the one underlined part that must be changed to make the sentence correct. If the sentence contains no error, select choice E.

Read the entire original sentence to yourself, listening for errors.  Then quickly check each underlined portion against the Big 8 Grammar Rules.  Mark any error you find, but be sure to check all of the answer choices.

Formerly called manacles or shackles, handcuffs consist of two metal rings joined by a short chain; once fastened shut, it requires a key to open. No error

(A) Formerly is an adverb modifying the word “called.”  It is in the correct format with an “–ly” on the end and is as close as possible to the word it modifies.  If you want to be sure that it is correct, substitute a synonym such as “previously” and read the sentence.  The meaning is clear and precise, so there is no error here.

(B) When a verb is underlined make sure that it is in the correct tense and that it matches the subject in number.  Handcuffs still exist, so it is correct to shift from past to present tense in this sentence.  The word “handcuffs” is plural, so the verb “consist” is correct.  You would not say “handcuffs consists.”  The preposition “of” is also idiomatically correct after “consist;” check the frequently-tested idioms list on page 172 of your Knowsys book to confirm this.

(C) This might be a tempting answer because it has an “–ed” ending.  The tense of a sentence supposed to be as consistent as possible, right?  Think about it this way: if a pair of handcuffs exists now, it was made in the past.  You also cannot change it to any other form, such as “joining,” without changing the meaning of the sentence.  There is no problem with the phrase “joined by.”

(D) When a pronoun like the word “it” is underlined, you must identify its antecedent.  The “it” is supposed to take the place of the noun “handcuffs,” but there is a problem.  “Handcuffs” is plural while “it” is singular.  You need the word “they” instead of the word “it.”  Mark this error.

(E) This answer choice is not correct because you already marked an error.

On sat.collegeboard.org, 54% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT writing, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Sentence Completions

One of the released SAT essay prompts asks “Has today’s abundance of information only made it more difficult for us to understand the world around us?”  Before you answer this question, take a look at this current event.  This current event could be used to argue either yes or no, but think for a moment.  Have you ever heard this man’s name before?  Did you know any of the facts associated with the massacres of Guatemalan villagers?  If not, why not?  What other information have you absorbed instead?

Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

Cover up your answer choices so that they do not distract you while you read the sentence carefully.  Predict a word to fill the blank that you find easier, and then eliminate any answer choices that do not match your prediction for that blank.  Use the same method with the other blank.  Remember to eliminate each wrong choice, even if one answer matches one of your predictions exactly.

Lazarro's last movie polarized viewers: while many ------- the film for its artfully directed scenes, others ------- it for being inaccessible.

The key word in this sentence is “polarized” – a Knowsys word!  However, you can still find the correct answer if you do not know what the word “polarized” means.  Start with the first blank.  If people think that the film is “artfully directed” that is a very positive observation.  If no word comes to mind immediately, predict “a positive word” and look down at your answer choices.

(A) praised . . extolled
(B) disparaged . . blamed
(C) regarded . . commended
(E) lauded . . criticized

(A) “Praised” is positive.  Keep it.  (B) Another Knowsys vocabulary word!  “Disparaged” is negative; it is the opposite of what you want.  Eliminate this answer choice.  (C) The word “regarded” often just means “to look.”  This is a neutral word rather than a positive word.  However, if you start over thinking the sentence, it is easy to remember that to “give that person my regards” is to give them respect or show interest in them.  If you aren’t comfortable with eliminating this word yet, keep it.  (D) “Admired” is positive.  Keep it.  (E) Another Knowsys word!  Remember that the Latin root “laud” means praise.  Keep this choice.

Now look at the second blank.  If people say that the film is inaccessible, that means that it was difficult to understand or they couldn’t get into it.  That is a criticism.  Predict “a negative word” and look down at your remaining answer choices.

(A) praised . . extolled
(C) regarded . . commended
(E) lauded . . criticized

(A) Another Knowsys word!  Are you studying your Knowsys SAT vocabulary?  If so, you know that extol is positive and you can eliminate it.  If not, keep it.  (C) This word is related to the word “recommend.”  If a teacher commends you or recommends you for something, those are good things.  Eliminate this choice.  (D) If celebrities endorse a product, they recommend trying that product and say positive things about it.  Eliminate this choice.  (E) You know that the word “criticized” is negative.  Always go with what you know on the SAT rather than hazarding a guess on what you don’t know.

Note:  If you knew the word “polarized,” you could have simply looked for two words that are opposites in your answer choices.

Words used in this SC:
Polarized: Made something completely opposite, at two different extremes
Extolled: Praised highly
Disparaged: Criticized disrespectfully
Regarded: Looked at or paid attention to
Commended: To reward or praise
Endorsed: To support or give approval to someone or something
Lauded: Praised

On sat.collegeboard.org, 64% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT vocabulary, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Pronouns

Is the world changing for the better?  There are a variety of ways that you could approach this previous SAT essay question, but take a look at this article before you answer it.  It seems that people are living longer but not healthier.  Look for themes in this article that might show up in other SAT questions.  Some obvious themes are the contrast between young and old, the difference between generations, health, individual ability, dependency, and self-perception.  If any of these topics come up in your SAT essay prompt, this would make a great current event example to substantiate your thesis.  Make sure you note the facts from this article if you chose to use it as one of your five prepared current events.

## Writing: Improving Sentences

Part or all of the following sentence is underlined; beneath the sentence are five ways of phrasing the underlined material. Select the option that produces the best sentence. If you think the original phrasing produces a better sentence than any of the alternatives, select choice A.

Read the entire original sentence, listening for errors.  Evaluate the underlined portion using the Big 8 Grammar Rules.

The wide variety of spices and condiments used in sausage making including salt and, it depends on the ethnic or regional origin of the recipe, coriander, nutmeg, cloves, garlic, vinegar, mace, pepper, chili peppers, or pistachio nuts.

This sentence has two problems that your Knowsys book tells you to always avoid.  Any time you see an “-ing” underlined on the SAT, check to make sure that it belongs there.  You will never need two “-ing” ending words in a row unless you are looking at a list.  Check back to make sure you know the subject connected to the verb “including.” The subject of the sentence is “variety.”  You would not say “The variety including salt,” you would say “The variety includes salt.”  Mark this error.

Then notice the word “it.”  The word “it” must have an antecedent so that it is not a random and unassociated pronoun.  "The wide variety" is the only thing that could be the antecedent for "it," but if you substitute in “the wide variety” where “it” is, the sentence becomes difficult to understand as it jumps from an observation into a list.  The unnecessary pronoun “it” is causing this difficulty, so mark this error and look down at your answer choices.  Only one will solve both of these problems.  The other choices all contain specific errors.

(A) including salt and, it depends
(B) include salt, depending
(C) includes salt, and it depends
(D) includes salt and, depending
(E) including salt and, depending

(A) This answer matches the original sentence and can be eliminated without a second glance.

(B) This choice has a subject and verb agreement error.  “The wide variety” is singular so it requires a singular verb.  You would not say “the variety include;” you would say “the variety includes.”  Eliminate this choice.

(C) Including the word “it” causes problems with the sentence structure of this sentence because “it depends on the ethnic or regional origin of the recipe” is an independent clause.  Notice that there is a comma that comes after the preceding “and.”  You cannot have an independent clause inserted as an aside that is set off from the rest of the sentence by only commas.  Eliminate this choice.

(D) This answer gets rid of both of the problems that you initially identified.

(E)  This answer choice still has the awkward “-ing” phrasing.  Eliminate it.

On sat.collegeboard.org, 55% of the responses were correct.

For more help with SAT writing, visit www.myknowsys.com!

# Functions

Is there always another explanation or point of view?  Before you answer this released SAT essay prompt, check out this article that is part current event and part historical example with a literary connection thrown in just for fun.  Richard the III was a real king who is best known as a villain in Shakespeare’s work.  Read about what happened to him and why he is appearing in the news now.  There are far too many themes in this article to name them all, so come up with about a dozen ways you could connect this example to an essay prompt.  Then memorize a few of the most interesting facts so that you can use them to support your opinion on any of the themes that show up in your SAT essay prompt.

Note: The identity of King Richard the III has been confirmed.  Read here for details.

## Algebra: Functions

Read the following SAT test question and then select the correct answer.

Always read the problem carefully, identify the bottom line, and assess your options for solving the problem before you attack the problem.  When you have an answer, loop back to verify that it matches the bottom line.

The function y = f(x), defined for -1.5 ≤ x ≤ 1.5, is graphed above. For how many different values of is f(x) = 0.2?

Bottom Line: # times f(x) = .2

Assess your Options:  Some students will skip this problem, thinking that it requires a lot of time to somehow write a formula for the function from the graph.  However, once you know what you are looking at, this is one of the easiest and fastest problems on the test!  All that you have to do is read the graph!

Attack the Problem:  You know that f(x) = .2 is the same thing as y = .2.  Anytime you see f(x), you can just substitute a y for f(x) if that clarifies the problem in your head.  If y is constant, you know that it will be a horizontal line at .2.  Draw that line on your graph.

Anywhere that the line crosses the function f(x), that function is equal to .2.  Count up the number of intersections between the line that you drew and the original function.  There are four.  That means that f(x) = .2 four times.

(A) None
(B) One
(C) Two
(D) Three
(E) Four

On sat.collegeboard.org, 39% of the responses were correct.

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